Bibliography for Tin Whiskers, Zinc Whiskers, Cadmium Whiskers, Indium Whiskers, and Other Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers

This web site is being maintained by John R. Barnes, who was the President and Chief Engineer of dBi Corporation from 2002 to September 30, 2013, when we closed because ObamaCrap made it too expensive for us to remain in business.

John R. Barnes KS4GL, PE, NCE, NCT, ESDC Eng, ESDC Tech, PSE, Master EMC Design Engineer, SM IEEE
June 8, 2017
jrbarnes@iglou.com

Tin whiskers and zinc whiskers are a major concern with lead-free electronics, because they can:

One of the best-known failures due to tin whiskers was the loss of the Galaxy IV satellite in orbit in 1998, shutting down close to 90% of the pagers across the US for several days. Several other HS-601 satellites also died in orbit for the same reason-- tin whiskers growing inside a power relay-- costing their owners (or their insurance companies) hundreds of millions of dollars in losses.

I first learned about tin whiskers and tin pest in 2005, early in my study of lead-free electronics, which has since grown to well over 22,750 documents. In 2008 I joined the Tin Whisker Group, which holds a weekly teleconference on tin-whisker-related subjects, and have been an active participant ever since. There I learned about a number of physical and electrical properties of tin whiskers that are very different from those of bulk tin-- and we still don't understand why!

Several months later I ran across a Ph. D. thesis that mentioned that a number of metals besides tin (Sn), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and indium (In) can be made to grow whiskers (or similarly-sized/ shaped structures) under certain conditions. Discussing this thesis at the next Tin Whisker Group teleconference, we came up with a number of factors that might contribute to the unique properties of tin whiskers:

I was already making 4 to 5 trips per month to university libraries, and checking some 150 journals/ magazines and the proceedings of about 150 symposiums/ conferences each month for my other studies. So I volunteered to search the scientific and engineering literature for information on tin, zinc, and other conductive materials that can grow whiskers or be formed into whisker-like structures.

To keep track of what I'd found, and develop additional leads, I started this bibliography-- which is divided into:

Overall, the documents referenced in this bibliography cover:

produced by:

More specifically, the materials and their forms that have been studied include:


Books on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 10/31/2012)

The Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project - Phase II. The Benchmarking and Best Practices Center of Excellence, May 31, 2010. pp. 131-132,Appendix C.

Buschow, K. H. J., Cahn, Robert, Flemings, Merton C., Ilschner, Bernhard, Kramer, Edward J., Mahajan, Subhash, and Veyssiere, Patrick, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Volume 10. (Katz, J. D., "Whiskers," pp. 9570-9574.) Pergamon, 2001. ISBN 0080431526. $7,295.00 list price.

Fukuda, Mitsuo, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs. Boston: Artech House, 1991. ISBN 0890064652.

Gilman, J. J., The Art and Science of Growing Crystals. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1963.

Grossmann, Gunter, and Zardini, Christian, The ELFNET Book on Failure Mechanisms, Testing Methods, and Quality Issues of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects. New York: Springer, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85729-235-3. $129.00 list price.

Henshall, Greg, Bath, Jasbir, and Handwerker, Carol A., Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 978-0-470-41074-5. $99.95 list price.

Hudson, John B., Surface Science: An Introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. ISBN 0471252395. pp. 304-309.

Kaldis, E., Current Topics in Material Science, Volume 1. (Givargizov, E. I., "Growth of Whiskers by the Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism,", pp. 79-145.) New York: North-Holland Publishing, 1978.

Kato, Takahiko, Handwerker, Carol A., and Bath, Jasbir, Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks: Theory and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: IEEE Press, 2016. ISBN 9780470907238.

Levitt, Albert P., Whisker Technology. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970. ISBN 471-53150-2.

Licari, James J., and Enlow, Leonard R., Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook: Materials, Processes, Design, Testing and Production, 2nd Edition. Westwood, NJ: Noyes Publications, 1998. ISBN 0815514239. $180.00 list price.

Tan, A. C., Tin and Solder Plating in the Semiconductor Industry. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993. ISBN 0-412-48240-1.

Wright, Roger N., Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy. Elsevier, 2011. ISBN 978-0-12-382092-1.


Ph. D. and Master's Theses on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 10/22/2015)

Anglin, Benjamin Stewart, Investigation and Characterization of Thermoelastic Eigenstresses Near Microstructural Features and the Application to Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 2012.

Bhardwaj, Divya, Development of Lead Free Thermal Fuse Wires Using Ohno Continuous Casting. Master's Thesis for University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 2008.

Bierman, Matthew John, Dislocations in One-Dimensional Semiconductor Crystals: Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 2009.

Brenner, Sidney S., The Growth and Mechanical Properties of Metal Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, May 1957.

Buchovecky, Eric J., Numerical Simulation of Stress Generation and Whisker Growth in Sn Films. Ph. D. Thesis for Brown University, Providence, RI, May 2010.

Chandler, Gary Jesse Howard, Growth of Whiskers in the Indium-Tin Alloy System and the effect of Elastic Strain on Tc in alpha Indium-Tin. Master's Thesis for Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Aug. 1972.

Cheng, Jing, Tin Whiskers in Electronic Packaging: Mechanism and Modeling. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 2011.

Chin, Erica, Templated Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-segmented Nanowires for Sensor and Optical Device Applications. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, 2009.

Clore, Nicholas, and Fritz, Dennis, "Identification and Counting Procedure for Tin Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects," Tin Whisker Group Teleconference, October 26, 2011.

Courey, Karim J., An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, May 2008.

Dimitrovska, Aleksandra, Mitigation Strategies of Tin(Sn) Whisker Growth, Ph. D. Thesis for Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, December 19, 2009.

Crandall, Erika R., Factors Governing Tin Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 2012.

Fang, Tong, Tin Whisker Risk Assessment Studies. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Fukuda, Yuki, Experimental Investigations of Whisker Formation on Tin Platings . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. 2005.

Gao, Fan, Lead-Free Nano-solders on Metallic Nanowires: Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Reflow Properties. Master's Thesis for University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, April 21, 2009.

Han, Jung Kyu, Effect of Thermo-Electromigration on Copper Dissolution and Intermetallic Compound Formation in Flip-Chip Pb-free Solder Joints. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Han, Sungwon, Assessment of an Electrical Shorting and Metal Vapor Arcing Potential of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2012.

Kao, Hui-Ju, Effect of Cu additives on Sn whisker formation and interfacial reaction of Sn(Cu) finishes. Master's Thesis for National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan, May 23, 2005.

Lee, Taekyeong, Electromigration and Solid State Aging of Flip Chip Solder Joints and Analysis of Sn Whisker on Lead-frame. Ph. D. Thesis for University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2001.

Panashchenko, Lyudmyla, Evaluation of Environmental Tests for Tin Whisker Assessment. Master's Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2009.

Pedigo, Aaron E., The Influence of the Effective Physical Properties of Tin Electrodeposited Films on the Growth of Tin Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2011.

Pinol, Lesly Agnes, Fundamental Studies of Tin Whiskering in Microelectronics Finishes . Ph. D. Thesis for University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010.

Rodekohr, Chad L., Material Factors Influencing Metallic Whisker Growth. Ph. D. Thesis for Auburn University, Auburn, AL, Dec. 19, 2008.

Rozgonyi, George A., Field Emission Microscope Studies of the Effect of Crystallographic Orientation and Surface Defects on the Chemisorption and Oxidation of Copper Whiskers. Ph. D. Thesis for University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 1964.

Sabbagh, N. A. J., Tin Whisker Growth in the Communication Industry. Master's Thesis for Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada, Apr. 1973.

Sarobol, Pylin, Effects of Local Film Properties on the Nucleation and Growth of Tin Whiskers and Hillocks. Ph. D. Thesis for Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 2013.

Spitzner, Matthew James, Response of tin whiskers to dynamic input: Mathematical modeling and experimental property measurement. Master's Thesis for Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2009.

Wu, Chun-I, Fabrication and Site Specific Growth of Nanowires. Ph. D. Thesis for Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2006.


Papers, Reports, and Magazine Articles on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 6/8/2017)

First author's last name beginning with: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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"100% Sn Plating Whisker Growth Study," AMD, Jan 10, 2003.

"A new way to grow microwires," Electronics Manufacture and Test , Feb. 4, 2011.

"A practical precaution against introducing zinc whiskers," finishing.com.

"AEM, Inc."

"Are Zinc Whiskers Growing in Your Computer Room?"

"Back Up Block 1 Whisker on Cu," June 6, 2003.

"Back Up Block 2 Whisker on NiFe," June 6, 2003.

"Basler Power Supplies," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, July 12, 2002.

"BMPCOE Strives to Mitigate Tin Whiskers," COTS Journal, vol. xx no. xx, pp. 60-63, Sept. 2003.

"Boeing 601 (f.k.a. Hughes HS 601)."

"Cadmium whiskers on Hubble," finishing.com.

"Close Shave," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 20 no. 8, pp. 10, Aug. 2003.

"Coating to stop tin whisker growth?," Circuitnet, Aug. 14, 2006.

"Comments on Test Methods & Criteria for Tin Whiskers in Surface Mount Passive Devices," EIA/ECA-CB22, Nov. 2005.

"Control of Whisker Growth in Tin Alloy Coatings," ST Microelectronics Application Note AN2035, Nov. 2004.

"Electrodeposited Pb-free Solder and Whisker Prevention," Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, vol. 106 no. 2, pp. 490, Mar./Apr. 2001.

"Elimination of Lead from Electrical and Electronic Equipment - the Dilemma of Tin-Whisker Growth," Eurocomp, no. 7, pp. 3-6, Autumn 2004.

"European directives vs. Tin Whiskers & Tin Pest," finishing.com .

"Examples of tin-whiskers failures," evertiq, Oct. 11, 2007.

"Examples of Whiskergrowing in Industry Applications," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"GEIA-HB-0005-4 Guidelines for Performing Reliability Assessment for Pb Free Assemblies used in Aerospace and High-Performance Electronic Applications," Sept. 23, 2010.

"GEIA-STD-0005-2 Standard for Mitigating the Effects of Tin Whiskers in Aerospace and High Performance Electronic Systems," Rev A draft 1/5/11.

"Getting the Lead Out," Appliance Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, Feb. 2006.

"Glitch silences millions of pagers," Star-Bulletin, May 20, 1998.

"High-Speed, Non-Whiskering Tin for Semiconductor Packages," Products Finishing, vol. 47 no. 12, pp. 80, Sept. 1983.

"Hot-Dip Tin Process Said to Prevent Whisker Formation," Products Finishing, vol. 73 no. 7, pp. 11, Apr. 2009.

"HP says RoHS making whiskers problem worse," evertiq, Feb. 22, 2005.

"HP's Position Statement on Tin-based Plating for Lead-free Components," Apr. 7, 2003.

"Hughes Satellite Failures Continue To Plague New Owner," Electronics Weekly, Apr. 24, 2001.

"Hughes Seeks To Salvage Satellites," Television Digest with Consumer Electronics, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Sept. 11, 2000.

"Inadvertent Reactor Trip and Partial Safety Injection Due to Tin Whisker," United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC Information Notice 2005-25, Aug. 25, 2005.

"Industry Groups Continue Focus on Tin Whiskers," CPMT Society Outlook , vol. 1, pp. 3-4, 2005.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Accelerated Test Project Test Method for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth on Plated Surfaces." International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, June 17, 2004.

"iNEMI tin whisker group publishes updated recommendations," Tin World, no. 17, pp. 11, Spring 2007.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker user group publishes updated recommendations to help reduce risk of tin whiskers," emsnow, Dec. 20, 2006.

"iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 14, Early Summer 2007.

"iNEMI Updates Tin Whiskers Findings," SMT Web Exclusive Article.

"Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations Tin Wiskers Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Food and Drug Administration, Mar. 14, 1986.

"Interim Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High- Reliability Products,", NEMI, Mar. 2004.

"IPC-1081, Conflict Minerals Due Diligence Best Practices Guideline, Final Draft for Industry Review," Bannockburn, IL: IPC, July 2012.

"ITG Subject: Tin Whiskers - Problems, Causes, and Solutions," Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration *ORA/ORO/DEIO/IB*, Mar. 14, 1986.

"J-STD-020B, IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020B, Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, July 2002.

"J-STD-033A, IPC/JEDEC J-STD-033A, Joint Industry Standard Handling, Packing, Shipping and Use of Moisture/Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Devices," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, July 2002.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing," Tin World , no. 14, pp. 11, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," CircuiTree, vol. 19 no. 5, pp. xx-xx, May 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," PCB007, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," FPGA and Structured ASIC Journal, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"JEDEC and IPC release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard and Mitigation Practices Guideline," emsnow, May 5, 2006.

"JEDEC, iNEMI Update Tin Whisker and Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," CircuiTree, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx-xx, July 2005.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Acceptance Testing Standard," Circuitree, vol. 19 no. 6, pp. xx-xx, June 2006.

"JEDEC, IPC Release Tin Whisker Standards," Printed Circuit Design and Manufacture, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 8, June 2006.

"JEDEC Releases Standard for Tin Whisker Testing and iNEMI User Group Updates Lead-Free Surface Finish Guidelines," PCB007, May 24, 2005.

"JEITA Whisker Test Method Project," IPC and SOLDERTEC Global Conference, Brussels, June 2003.

"JESD201, Environmental Acceptance Requirements for Tin Whisker Susceptibility of Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Mar. 2006.

"JESD22A121, Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, May 2005.

"JESD22A121.01, Test Method for Measuring Whisker Growth on Tin and Tin Alloy Surface Finishes," JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, Oct. 2005.

"JETRO Releases the Results of its Survey of Japanese Manufacturers in Europe and Turkey," PCB007, May 26, 2006.

"JP002, Current Tin Whiskers Theory and Mitigation Practices Guideline," Arlington, VA: JEDEC Solid State Technology Association and Bannockburn, IL: IPC, Mar. 2006.

Lead Free Electronics Manhattan Project Phase 2. ACI Technologies, Feb. 10, 2010.

"Lead-Free Just Keeps Going and Going and ...," Design News, vol. 60 no. 9, pp. xx, June 27, 2005.

"Lead Free Product Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead Free Product Testing/Tin Whisker Testing," Trace Laboratories-East.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms," TWI LiveWire, issue 11, Nov./Dec. 2003.

"Lead-Free solder failure mechanisms: What are Tin Whiskers?," LiveWire, no. 11, pp. xx-xx, .Nov./Dec. 2003.

"Lead Free Tin Whiskering Study: Grayhill DIP Switches," Grayhill, May 11, 2004.

"Lead-free: Whiskers on Tin," Tyco Electronics.

"Leadfree Solder and Tin Whiskers Program Guidance (draft)," Lead Free Soldering Summit, Philadelphia, PA, July 13-14, 2005.

"Legs 1, 2 & 3: Olin 194 8lead SOIC Molded/Singulated."

"Matte Tin Plating Whisker Data," Lattice Product Bulletin PB1227H, Nov. 2010.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 1996.

"MAUDE Adverse Event Report," 2008.

"Mechanism of Crystal Growth Discovered," Bell Laboratories Record , vol. 48 no. 4, pp. 142-143, Apr. 1964.

"Metal Whiskers," Science, New Series, vol. 123 no. 3209, pp. 1165, Jun. 29, 1956.

"Metal Whiskers," finishing.com.

"Metallic Whisker Sources," Worldwide Environmental Services, 2004.

"Nano Whiskers."

"Nanowire breakthrough could lead to roll-out solar panels, flexible electronics," American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 92 no. 9, pp. 11, Dec. 2013.

"NASA's Suggestions for Reducing Risk of Tin Whisker Induced Failures," Products Finishing, vol. 74 no. 12, pp. 32, Sept. 2010.

"NEMI Group Releases Draft Proposal of Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx-xx. June 2004.

"NEMI Issues Revised Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," PCB007, Aug. 30, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker acceptance test requirements," emsnow, Sept. 6, 2004.

"NEMI issues revised tin whisker test requirements," TIN World , no. 7, pp. 17, 2004.

"NEMI team recommends three test conditions for evaluating tin whisker growth," PCB007, Oct. 6, 2003.

"NEMI Team Recommends Three Test Conditions for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth," CircuiTree, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 2003.

"NEMI's Tin Whisker Project reports initial test results, reviews modeling efforts at APEX 2002," PCB007, Feb. 8, 2002.

"New additive limits tin whiskers," Solid State Technology, vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 23, Jan. 2008.

"New Immersion Tin Process PRESA RMK-30: Tin Whisker Issue," Uyemura, Mar. 2007.

"New Standards on Tin Whisker Mitigation," Circuits Assembly, vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 36, Apr. 2006.

"New tin whisker standard," Tin World, no. 18, pp. 16, Early Summer 2007.

"New TWI proposed project: Tin Whiskers - reducing the risk," TWI LiveWire, issue 14, Summer 2004.

"Nickel-coated Components Solve Electrical Problem," Nickel, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 5, Mar. 2005.

"On Trial In Brazil," Air Safety Week, vol. 21 no. 23, June 11, 2007.

"Other Environmental Requirements."

"Overcoming zinc whisker," finishing.com.

"Plating's Effects on Electronics Assembly," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/Circuits Assembly, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 40, July 2010.

"Position Paper on Risks to High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," Jul. 25, 2002.

"Potential Tin Whiskers on Printed Circuit Board Components," Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-05-4, June 8, 2005.

"Power Supply Failures: The Problem with Zinc Whiskers," Apr. 5, 2005.

Problem Advisory FV5-P-06-01A

"Proposals for Further Exemptions from the Requirements of Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC for Specific Applications of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Hexavalent Chromium," Japan Business Council in Europe.

"Qualification of Lead Free Component Plating Finishes," Nov. 3, 2003.

"Qualification Procedure for Tin Whisker Formation in Lead-free Connector Terminal Finishes," Molex.

"Rationale for the Auger Studies," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, May 11, 2016.

"Recommendations on Lead-Free Finishes for Components Used in High-Reliability Products," iNEMI Tin Whisker User Group, Version 3, May 2005.

"Reducing the risk of tin whiskers on lead-free products," RF Design, vol. xx no. x, pp. xx-xx, May 10, 2006.

"Requested Exemption from the requirements of Article 4(1) of Directive 2002/95/EC," Swatch, Jan. 12, 2006.

"Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 200: Tin Whiskers (NUREG-0933, Main Report with Supplements 1-33)

"Risks of Conductive Whiskers in High-Reliability Electronics and Associated Hardware from Pure Tin Coatings," June 19, 2002.

"RoHS at QP Semiconductor," QP Semiconductor Application Note 114 Rev. 2.0, Feb. 2008.

"Scientists Research Tin Pest and Whiskers," SMT Web Exclusive Article.

"Second ECTC iNEMI Tin Whisker Workshop," Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society Newsletter, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 8-9, June 2005.

"Set of recommendations to help reduce risk of Tin Whiskers," evertiq, Dec. 18, 2006.

"Shaving the Risk of Tin Whiskers," NITON Application Bulletin , Mar. 17, 2004.

"Shaving the whiskers for lead-free production," European Semiconductor, vol. 26 no. 11, pp. 17, Nov. 1, 2004.

"Some Examples of "Whiskers" from Tin-Based Alloys," Tin Whisker Group teleconference, July 22, 2009.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 4, pp. xx-xx, May 4, 2006.

"Standards aim to reduce the risk of tin whiskers," Test & Measurement World, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 12, June 2006.

"Suppression of Tin Whisker Growth through Optimized Tin Plating Chemistry Formulation Technistan EP," Technic.

"Technical Service Bulletin: Tin Whiskers in MOD10 Relays." GE Power Management, MOD10 SB1-00.03.27, Mar. 27, 2000.

"Technical Support to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) on the Reported Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) Unintended Acceleration (UA) Investigation, Version 1.0." NASA.

"The Facts about Tin Whiskers," Electronic Components, Assemblies & Materials Association, EIA/ECA-CB19, Aug. 2004.

"The Fusing of Wires and Tin Whiskers," Tin Whisker Group teleconferences, Apr. 22, 2009 and Apr. 29, 2009.

"The Growth of Tin Whisker," Samsung.

"The Mechanism of Ag2S Formation," Product Engineering & Quality , Oct. 2002, pp. xx-xx.

"The problem of 'tin whiskers' cannot be neglected," Dataweek , vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, July 28, 2004.

"The Relation between Whisker and Stress," Hynix Semiconductor.

"Thermal cycling test of tin-bismuth and tin plating," Ishihara Chemical Co., 2008.

"Three organizations from US, Europe, Japan cooperating to develop tin whisker test method," PCB007, July 18, 2003.

"Tin-Nickel Alloy Plating Does Not Grow Whiskers in Five Years," Tin and its Uses, no. 64, pp. 15, 1964.

"Tin-Nickel versus Metal "Whiskers"," Tin and its Uses, no. 52, pp. 8, 1961.

"Tin "Noodles"???."

"Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements," NEMI Tin Whisker Users Group, July 28, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Experience - Rocket Motor Initiator Failure Analysis."

"Tin Whisker Experiences," June 19, 2002.

"Tin Whisker Growth Evaluation Results," Kemet, Mar. 30, 2004.

"Tin Whisker Imagery," empfasis, pp. 9, Apr. 2009.

"Tin Whisker Info "Brief"," On Semiconductor Application Note TND311, May 2003.

"Tin Whisker Mitigation & Conformal Coating," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 57, Feb. 2013.

"Tin Whisker Migration on New and Stored Parts," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 29 no. 3, pp. 36-37, Mar. 2012.

"Tin Whisker Mitigation & Conformal Coating," Surface Mount Technology (SMT), vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 57, Feb. 2013.

"Tin Whisker Qualification and Reliability Testing," Printed Circuit Design and Fab/ Circuits Assembly, vol. 28 no. 10, pp. 37,39, Oct. 2011.

"Tin Whisker References."

"Tin Whisker Specs Defined," Metals and Interconnects, vol. 18 no. 7, pp. xx, Aug. 2004.

"Tin Whisker User Group Publishes Updated Set of Recommendations Help Reduce Risk of Tin Whiskers," PCB007, Dec. 15, 2006.

"Tin Whisker Workshop."

"Tin Whiskering Borders on Urban Legend," Design News, vol. 60 no. 11, pp. xx, Aug. 15, 2005.

"Tin Whiskers," Electronics Manufacture and Test, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Dec. 7, 2003.

"Tin Whiskers," Sept. 14, 2004.

"Tin Whiskers."

"Tin Whiskers," Circuitnet, May 14, 2007.

"Tin Whiskers 2012," 3rd Electronic Materials and Assembly Processes for Space (EMPS) Workshop, Genova, Italy, Mar. 21, 2012.

"Tin whiskers a problem with immersion tin pwb finishes? ," finishing.com.

"Tin Whiskers and Conversion to Pb-Free," Circuits Assembly, vol. 16 no. 12, pp. 38-40, Dec. 2005.

"Tin Whiskers: Companies Taking Cover Under iNEMI Guidelines," Design News, vol. 60 no. 12, pp. xx, Sept 5, 2005.

"Tin whiskers in electronic," finishing.com.

"Tin whiskers - reducing the risk," LiveWire, no. 15, pp. xx-xx, Feb./Mar. 2005.

"Tin Whiskers Syfer Surface Mount Capacitors," Syfer Application Note AN0019 Issue 3.

"Tin wisker might delay RoHS schedule," Industry News, vol. xx no. xx, pp. xx-xx, Mar. 18, 2005.

"TO-220 Lead Free and RoHS Compliance Document," International Rectifier.

"Trace Laboratories-Central Announces Their New Tin Whisker Testing Program (iNEMI-Specified)," Trace Laboratories.

"TW System Failures," NAVSEA, Apr. 3, 2005.

"UCLA Department of Materials Science and Engineering."

"What are Tin Whiskers?."

"What Are Tin Whiskers?"

"What are Tin Whiskers?."

What's Inside Your PC?

"When Electronics Get Five O'Clock Shadow," Jan. 5, 2005.

"Whisker control plating process YWL SYSTEM," Yuken.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Cu based Leadframes: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29. 2004.

"Whisker Formation on Tin Plated FeNi42: Results and Conclusions," Oct. 29, 2004.

"Whisker Formation Test Report," Phoenix Passive Components.

"Whisker-free Tin Coatings for Electronic Components," Tin and its Uses , no. 74, pp. 5, 1967.

"Whisker Woes," Air Safety Week, vol. 18 no. 45, pp. xx-xx, Nov. 22, 2004.

"Whiskers Can't Be Eliminated," Design News, vol. 61 no. 9, pp. xx, June 26, 2006.

"Whiskers on Monitor PCBs," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

"Whiskers on USB housing of PC Mother Board," Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Sept. 5, 2008.

"Will electronic equipment fail from tin-whisker shorts?," SourceESB, Feb. 9, 2005.

"Zinc Contamination in High Technology Facilities.,"

"Zinc "whiskers"," finishing.com.

"Zinc Whiskers Growing on Raised Floor Tiles are Causing Conductive Contamination Failures and Equipment Shutdowns," The Uptime Institute.

AAAA

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Yoshida, Kazunari, Shinohara, Tetsuo, Yamashita, Tsutomu, and Tanaka, Atsuhiro, "Analysis of surface flaws on drawn wire and wire breaks," Wire Journal International, vol. 43 no. 3, pp. 152-158, Mar. 2010.

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Yu, Xiaoming, Yu, Xuan, Zhang, Jianjun, Zhang, Dekun, Ni, Jian, Cai, Hongkun, Zhang, Dexian, and Zhao, Ying, "Investigation of light transmission and scattering properties in silver nanowire mesh transparent electrodes," Materials Letters, vol. 145, pp. 219-223, Apr. 15, 2015.

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ZZZZ

Zaccari, J. S., "Pure Tin Plated Leads - Problems and Mitigation," IPC/JEDEC Third International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies , San Jose, CA, Apr. 23-24, 2003, pp. 258-261.

Zaccari, Joe, "Lead-Free Component Finishes: Problems and Mitigation," 2004 IEEE Microelectronics Reliability and Qualification Workshop, Manhattan Beach, CA, Feb. 3-4, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

Zaccari, Joseph, "Lead-Free Component Finishes - Problems and Mitigation," 2004 Medical Electronics Symposium Conference Proceedings, Bloomington, MN, May 19-20, 2004, pp. xx-xx.

Zaccheroni, Giulio, "A new vertical hot-dipped wire galvanizing system for thin coatings," Wire Journal International, vol. 37 no. 12, pp. 64-68, Dec. 2004.

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Zak, Pavel, Tucan, Marek, and Kudlacek, Ivan, "Tin Coating of Connectors - Reliability Risk for Electrical Equipment," 2011 34th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, Tratanska Lomnica, Slovakia, May 11-15, 2011, pp. 229-233.

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Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Gao, Lili, Zhang, Liang, Hu, Yuhua, and Lai, Zhongmin, "Interfacial microstructure and properties of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni/Cu solder joint with rare earth Nd addition," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509 no. 25, pp. 7152-7161, June 23, 2011.

Zeng, Guang, Xue, Songbai, Zhang, Liang, Gao, Lili, Lai, Zhongmin, and Luo, Jiadong, "Properties and microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni solder bearing rare earth element Pr," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 22 no. 8, pp. 1101-1108, Aug. 2011.

Zervas, Michael, Sacchetto, Davide, De Micheli, Giovanni, and Leblebici, Yusuf, "Top-down fabrication of very-high density vertically stacked silicon nanowire arrays with low temperature budget," Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 88 no. 10, pp. 3127-3132, Oct. 2011.

Zhan, H. F., Gu, Y. T., Yan, C., and Yarlagadda, P. K. D. V., "Bending properties of Ag nanowires with pre-existing surface defects," Computational Materials Science, vol. 81, pp. 45-51, Jan. 2014.

Zhan, H. F., Gu, Y. T., Yan, C., Feng, X. Q., and Yarlagadda, P. K. D. V., "Numerical exploration of plastic deformation mechanisms of copper nanowires with surface defects," Computational Materials Science, vol. 50 no. 12, pp. 3425-3430, Dec. 2011.

Zhan, H. F., and Gu, Y. T., "Theoretical and numerical investigation of bending properties of Cu nanowires," Computational Materials Science, vol. 55, pp. 73-80, Apr. 2012.

Zhang, Chen, and Li, Xiuling, "III-V Nanowire Transistors for Low-Power Logic Applications: A Review and Outlook," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 63 no. 1, pp. 223-234, Jan. 2016.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Estimation of whiskers growth on Sn coating of Cu-Leads in different accelerated tests," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 160-162, pp. 1575-1581, 2011.

Zhang, Jinsong, and Zhang, Jianhua, "Mechanism of whisker growth on pure Sn coating of Cu leads in the high temperature/humidity storage tests," Applied Mechanics and Materials , vol. 44-47, pp. 2691-2695, Dec. 2010.

Zhang, Junxiong, Xue, Songbai, Xue, Peng, and Liu, Shuang, "Thermodynamic reaction mechanism of the intermetallic compounds of SnxNdy and GaxNdy in soldered joint of Sn-9Zn-1Ga-0.5Nd," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 3064-3068, May 2015.

Zhang, L., Lu, J., Takagi, H., and Maeda, R., "Mechanical Characterization of Nanowires by Planar Vibration Sensor," 2013 8th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, Suzhou, China, Apr. 7-10, 2013, pp. 124-127.

Zhang, L. C., Tanaka, H., and Gupta, P., "The Deformation of Nano-Whiskers of Mono-Crystalline Copper: Shape Effect, Properties, Shear Banding and Necking," Key Engineering Materials vol. 274-276 no. xx, pp. 331-336, 2004.

Zhang, Li, and Mitani, Yuichiro, "Structural and electrical evolution of gate dielectric breakdown observed by conductive atomic force microscopy," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, pp. 032906-1-032906-3, 2006.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Effect of Nd on whiskers growth behavior of SnAgCu solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics , vol. 27 no. 9, pp. 9584-9588, Sept. 2016.

Zhang, Liang, Sun, Lei, Han, Ji-guang, and Guo, Yong-huan, "Sizes effect of CeSn3 on the whiskers growth of SnAgCuCe solder joints in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 26 no. 8, pp. 6194-6197, Aug. 2015.

Zhang, Liang, Yang, Fan, and Zhong, Su-juan, "Whisker growth on SnAgCu-xPr solders in electronic packaging," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 5618-5621, June 2016.

Zhang, P., Shen, L. W., Ouyang, J., Zhang, Y. M., Wu, S. Q., and Sun, Z. M., "Room temperature mushrooming of gallium wires and its growth mechanism," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 619, pp. 488-497, Jan. 15, 2015.

Zhang, S. B., "Corrigendum to "Mechanical behaviors of single crystalline and fivefold twinned Ag nanowires under compression" [Comput. Mater. Sci. 98 (2015) 320-327]," Computational Materials Science, vol. 101, pp. 321, Apr. 15, 2015.

Zhang, S. B., "Mechanical behaviors of single crystalline and fivefold twinned Ag nanowires under compression," Computational Materials Science, vol. 98, pp. 320-327, Feb. 15, 2015.

Zhang, S. B., "Microstructure- and surface orientation-dependent mechanical behaviors of Ag nanowires under bending," Computational Materials Science, vol. 95, pp. 53-62, Dec. 2014.

Zhang, Tianwei, Huang, Yuhong, Zhang, Weilin, Ma, Fei, and Xu, Kewei, "Effect of stacking sequence on crystallization in Al/a-Ge bilayer thin films," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum Surfaces, and Films, vol. 32 no. 3, pp. 031501-1-031501-7, May/June 2014.

Zhang, Wan, and Schwager, Felix, "Effects of Lead on Tin Whisker Elimination," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 153 no. 5, pp. C337-C343, 2006.

Zhang, Wan, Egli, Andre, Schwager, Felix, and Brown, Neil, "Investigation of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compounds by AFM: New Aspects of the Role of Intermetallic Compounds in Whisker Formation," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing,", vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 85-93, Jan. 2005.

Zhang, X., Solak, H., Cerrina, F., Lai, B., Cai, Z., Ilinski, P., Legnini, D., and Rodrigues, W., "X-ray microdiffraction study of Cu interconnects," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 76 no. 3, pp. 315-317, Jan. 17, 2000.

Zhang, Xi, and Xiang, Gang, "Magnetic Properties of Iron-Based Alloy Nanowires upon Heat Treatment," Advanced Materials Research, vol. 239-242, pp. 197-201, 2011.

Zhang, Xiwei, Tang, Zhenjie, Hu, Dan, Meng, Dan, and Jia, Shuanwen, "Nanoscale p-n junctions based on p-type ZnSe nanowires and their optoelectronic applications," Materials Letters, vol. 168, pp. 121-124, Apr. 1, 2016.

Zhang, Y., and Abys, J. A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead solders - Pure Tin," Proceedings AESF SUR/FIN '96, Cleveland, OH, June 10-13, 1996, pp. 223-246.

Zhang, Y., Breck, G., Humiec, F., Murski, K., and Abys, A., "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead Solders: Pure Tin," Surface Mount International Proceedings of the Technical Program, Volume II, San Jose, CA, Sept. 10-12, 1996, pp. 641-649.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," Proceedings of the Technical Conference (CDROM) IPC/SMEMA Council APEX 2004 Conference, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 24-26, 2004, pp. S27-2-1-S27-2-20.

Zhang, Y., Fan, C., Xu, C., Khaselev, O., and Abys, J. A., "Tin Whisker Growth - Substrate Effect: Understanding CTE Mismatch and IMC Formation," CircuiTree, vol. 17 no. 6, pp. xx, June 2004.

Zhang, Yingjiu, Zhang, Qi, Wang, Nanlin, Yan, Yunjie, Zhou, Huihua, and Zhu, Jing, "Synthesis of thin Si whiskers (nanowires) using SiCl4," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 226 no. 2-3, pp. 185-191, June 2001.

Zhang, Yingjiu, Ago, Hiroki, Liu, Jun, Yumura, Motoo, Uchida, Kunio, Ohshima, Satoshi, Iijima, Sumio, Zhu, Jing, and Zhang, Xiaozhong, "The synthesis of In, In2O3 nanowires and In2O3 nanoparticles with shape-controlled," Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 264 no. 1-3, pp. 363-368, Mar. 15, 2004.

Zhang, Yun, "Can Thin Sn over Ni be an Answer to Tin Whiskers?," IPC/Soldertec Global 3rd International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, Barcelona, Spain, June 7-10, 2005, pp. xx-xx.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, and Abys, Joseph A., "Tin Whisker Growth and Prevention," Journal of SMT, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 1-9, Oct. 2000.

Zhang, Yun, Xu, Chen, Fan, Chonglun, Vysotskaya, Anna, and Abys, Joseph A., "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon - Part I: Growth Rates," Electroplating Chemicals and Services.

Zhang, Z. X., Chen, X. Y., and Xiao, F., "The Sintering Behavior of Electrically Conductive Adhesives Filled with Surface Modified Silver Nanowires," Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 13, pp. 1465-1480, 2011.

Zhang, Zhi, Lu, Zhen-Yu, Chen, Ping-Ping, Lu, Wei, and Zou, Jin, "Controlling the crystal phase and structural quality of epitaxial InAs nanowires by tuning V/III ratio in molecular beam epitaxy," Acta Materialia, vol. 92, pp. 25-32, June 15, 2015.

Zhang, Zhongxian, Chen, Xiangyan, Yang, Haowei, Fu, Huiying, and Xiao, Fei, "Electrically Conductive Adhesives with Sintered Silver Nanowires," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 834-837.

Zhao, Fang, Wang, Qian, and Lee, Taekoo, "Characteristics of Tin Whisker Growth on Matte Tin Surface Finishes by Acceleration Conditions," 8th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, Shanghai, China, Aug. 14-17, 2007, pp. xx-xx.

Zhao, Jie-Hao, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 29 no. 4, pp. 265-273, Oct. 2006.

Zhao, Jie-Hua, Su, Peng, Ding, Min, Chopin, Sheila, and Ho, Paul S., "Microstructure-Based Stress Modeling of Tin Whisker Growth," 2005 Proceedings 55th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, May 31-June 3, 2005, pp. 137-144.

Zhao, Mengke, Hao, Hu, Xu, Guangchen, Sun, Jia, Shi, Yaowu, and Guo, Fu, "Fundamental Studies on Whisker Growth in Sn-based Solders," International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology & High Density Packaging, Beijing, China, Aug. 10-13, 2009, pp. 585-588.

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Web pages on Conductive Metal and Semiconductor Whiskers (revised 12/3/2015)

Martin, Holly, An Introduction to Tin Whiskers

Environment Friendly Technology to Replace Cadmium Coatings

Germanium

Hybrid Plastics Achieves a Milestone with Nanoscopic Materials for Suppression of Tin Whiskers from Lead-free Solders

Iron

Lead Finish Material Candidates and Pros/Cons

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin Whisker Growth

Metal Whiskers from Sn-Ag-Cu Alloy Systems

NASA Basic Info/FAQ

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #1: 20 Years to Failure

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #2: Tin Whiskers on Waveguide

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #3: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers Breaking Loose from Matte Tin-Plated RF Enclosure Lids

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #4- Tin Whiskers on Shield of GPS Units

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Anecdote #5: Field Failures Due to Tin Whiskers on Circuit Breaker Contacts

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Basic Info/FAQ

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Basic Info/FAQ

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 1

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 2

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 2

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 4

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 5

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Experiment 6: Simulation of Whisker Growth

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GOLD WHISKERS: Introducing a New Member to the Family

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center GSFC Experiments

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Literature References: Tin Whisker Literature References

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo Gallery

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo of the Month

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Sn-Pb Whiskers

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Specification Language Related to Pure Tin

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Summary of Specification Language for Pure Tin

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Whisker Failures

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Zinc Whiskers on Raised Floor Tile Structures Photo Gallery

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Zinc Whiskers on Zinc-Plated Steel Bus Rail

NEMI Group Releases Draft Proposal of Tin Whisker Acceptance Test Requirements

Pb-free (Lead Free) Frequently Asked Questions

Plating

Preliminary Guidance for Optical Inspection for Metal Whiskers

Pure Tin Plating Prohibition

ROHS / Lead (Pb) Free Solutions

Silver

Sn Whisker

Solder

Testing for Tin Whisker Growth

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out!

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out!

The Trouble with Tin: Get the Lead Out!

Tin Whisker Alert

Perton, Marc, "Tin whisker" crisis threatens global electronic systems

Tin Whisker Mitigation - Adding Lead to Chip Size Components with Pure-Tin Terminals

Tin Whisker Summary

Tin Whiskers

Tin Whiskers

Tin Whiskers

Tin Whiskers

Tin Whiskers "A New Problem"

Tin whiskers causes and prevention

Tin Whiskers on Card Guides

Brusse, Jay, Tin Whiskers on Lincoln's Beard, Nov. 25, 2009.

Tin Whiskers (Tech Tip #2)

"Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology"

What are Tin Whiskers?

What Are Tin Whiskers?

What's Inside Your PC?

What's so special about Cadmium Plating?

Whisker (metallurgy)

Whisker growth over a 12 minute period

Whisker growth over a 19 minute period

Whiskers in germanium transistors etc

Will electronic equipment fail from tin-whisker shorts?

Zinc and Cadmium Whiskers

Zinc Whisker Abatement

Zinc Whisker Detail

Zinc whisker induced failures in electronic systems

Zinc "whiskers"

Zinc "whiskers", page 2

I would like to thank Jay Brusse, Keith Hardin, and Victor Karpov for contributing to this study.

COMMENTS
If you refer to one or more of these documents in written communications, please mention our web site as the source. Similarly, if you link to them from your own web page(s), please E-mail jrbarnes@iglou.com giving the universal resource locater (URL), so that we may provide a reciprocal link.

Please send critiques, corrections, and/or additions to jrbarnes@iglou.com , or by snailmail to:
John Barnes
216 Hillsboro Ave
Lexington, KY 40511-2105


dBi Corporation was a one-man test house (testing laboratory) based in Lexington, Kentucky, testing a wide variety of commercial electronic products for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD) under its ISO 17025 accreditation. dBi was founded in Winchester, Kentucky in 1995 by Donald R. Bush, shortly after he retired from 30 years service with IBM Lexington's/ Lexmark's EMC Lab. John R. Barnes, who'd worked with Don at IBM Lexington and Lexmark, bought dBi in 2002 after Don's death, and moved the company to Lexington, Kentucky. John closed dBi at 11:59pm EDT on September 30, 2013, because ObamaCrap had increased operating expenses to the point that we could no longer afford to remain in business.

We'd like to thank all of the clients who chose dBi to test their products from 1995 to 2013. Below is a brief summary of our accomplishments during the 18 years we were in business.

From 1995 to 2001, under Don Bush's ownership and operation, dBi:

From 2002 to 2013, under John Barnes' ownership and operation, dBi:

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Last revised June 8, 2017